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A bibliography is a list of sources (books, journals, websites, periodicals, etc.) one has used for
researching a topic. Bibliographies are sometimes called “References” in the APA formatting
style. A bibliography usually just includes the bibliographic information (i.e., the author, title,
An annotation is a summary and/or evaluation. Therefore, an annotated bibliography includes
a summary and/or evaluation of each of the sources. Depending on your project or the
assignment, your annotations should include the three the following sections:
Summarize: What are the main arguments? What is the point of this book or article?
What topics are covered? If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would
you say? The length of your annotations will determine how detailed your summary is.
Assess: After summarizing a source, then evaluate it. Is it a useful source? How does it
compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is the information reliable? Is this
source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source?
Reflect: Once you’ve summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fits into
your research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your
argument? How can you use this source in your research project? Has it changed how
you think about your topic?
You will investigate each specific concept in great detail. Your research will show great depth,
as if you writing a paper for a conference or to be published in an academic journal. In fact, you
should look at the bibliographies of academic journals to see the depth that is expected.
Research. You will collect 5 sources from approved Communication Studies academic
journals (see list on page 4 of this assignment sheet) that are all central to your chosen topic.
COMS 100A – Annotated Bibliography Dr. Irwin
3. Write a thoughtful, 1-page, single spaced, introductory summation of your chosen area and
what direct, specific focus you are choosing to center your research around that explains why all
5 of your articles are connected to your topic.
4. Create a reference page that includes your 5 sources in APA format. Use the APA manual
(available in the library and the bookstore) as a guide. This reference page will be attached at the
end of your 5 annotations.
5. Summarize/Assess/Reflect (see above): After each of your complete citations in APA format,
you will write 1 paragraph summarizing the article, 1 paragraph assessing the information, and 1
paragraph reflecting on the information = total 1 full page – SINGLE SPACED. Each annotation
should be 500-550 words long NOT counting the citation, the source questions, nor the useable
quotations (the example is 535 words). This does not mean you will simply copy and paste the
abstract from the article into your work. Take the time to read and understand the article. Then
summarize, assess, and reflect on the pertinent information (see the first page of this assignment
sheet on how to do this). DO NOT use “I”. At all. Ever.
Answer: After each article summary/assess/reflect, you will write two sentences answering
the following two questions:
a) How did you find the article?
b) Why should this source be considered trustworthy?
These 2 questions will have different answers for each annotation. What is trustworthy is
not a yes or no question, but specific to EACH article. Think critically before you write.
Finally, end with 2 usable quotations from the article that you may use in writing a paper about
this topic in the future.
7. Each complete citation is worth up to 20 points. You will lose 3 points for each error
(punctuation, order, capitalization, underlining, spacing, etc.) in any given citation, thus,
attention to detail and proofreading is vital. Citations without annotations will receive a zero.
Annotations from sources NOT on the list below will receive a zero. Annotations without the
1-page intro to the subject chosen will receive a zero. Annotations without answers to the source
questions and the useable quotations will not receive full credit.As with all written assignments, make sure that your reference page follows the guidelines
for all academic written work:
1. Typed, 1” margins, 12 point Times New Roman (for this assignment, you are to single
space as the example does, for the entire assignment).
2. Do be sure your full name is on the 1st page. While required for papers, you do not need
a title page for this assignment.
3. ALWAYS cite in-text any and all information used from the article. It’s always better to
over-cite than under-cite. Don’t “accidentally” plagiarize; plagiarism is plagiarism no
matter how you cut it. Annotations without citations do not receive credit.
4. Attach your complete list of references at the end.
5. Do NOT use first person, “I”. Phrases such as “I feel”, “I believe”, “I think” will earn you
a low grade. Do not tell your reader what you think, tell them what you know.
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